Glossary
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | O | P | R | U
A
Acromegaly
Acromegaly is a disease that happens when the body produces too much growth hormone. This causes an overgrowth of all of the tissues in the body (like increased hand and feet size). It is very rare.
Adenomatous (precancerous) Polyps
Adenomatous (precancerous) polyps are growths that have cells that look and act differently than normal colon cells. They are likely to become cancerous as they grow.
Anemia
Anemia is an abnormal decrease in the number of red blood cells present in a person's blood.
B
Biopsy
During a biopsy, a small amount of tissue (the size of a single letter in a newspaper) is pinched off the side of your intestines and is sent to a laboratory where it is viewed and analyzed under a microscope.
BMI
BMI stands for body mass index which works out the amount of body fat from a personís height and weight. Body mass index is weight (in kilograms) divided height squared or height times height (in meters).
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C
Cholangiocarcinoma
Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer that develops in the bile ducts. Bile ducts connect the liver with the intestines.
Colon
The colon is the large intestine. It is the last part of the digestive tract. The colonís purpose is to absorb liquids and salts (electrolytes). Generally after a person eats it takes 2-3 days for the food to go through the entire large intestine.
Colon Polyps
Colon Polyps are growths that project from the inside lining of the large portion of the intestines or bowel. There are two types of polyps that are typically found: Adenomatous (precancerous) polyps and Hyperplastic polyps
Colon Cancer (Colorectal Cancer)
Colorectal cancer is cancer of the large portion of the intestines or bowel (colon).
Crohn's Disease
Crohn's disease is inflammation that happens in all of the intestines and can even extend into the stomach and mouth.
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D
Dysplasia
Dysplasia is a cancerous or precancerous condition. Diagnosis requires examination of multiple tissue samples under a microscope.
E
Endometrial or uterine cancer
Endometrial or uterine cancer is a malignant growth of cells in the lining of the uterus. The uterus is the muscular organ in women where babies develop.
F
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited cancer syndrome. A person affected by FAP has a 100% lifetime risk for developing colon cancer over time. Genetic testing for FAP is available.
G
Gastroenterology Specialist
A gastroenterology specialist is a doctor with extensive training in diseases of the digestive tract. A specialist who has is focused on digestive diseases is especially prepared to answer questions about, perform tests on, diagnose and prescribe the best course of treatment for complicated conditions of this part of the body.
Genetic Counseling
Before you get genetic testing, you may want to meet with a specially-trained health professional who can help you find and understand information so you can make a truly informed decision about whether or not to get genetic testing.
Genetic Testing
Genetic testing involves taking a sample of tissue or body fluid and then looking into the sample cells for DNA.
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H
Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a specific form of inherited colorectal cancer which accounts for about 5% of all colorectal cancers. Genetic testing for HNPCC is available.
Hyperplastic Polyps
Hyperplastic Polyps are growths that look and act differently than normal colon cells. They rarely become cancerous.
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I
Inflamatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease refers to diseases which cause the lining of the intestines to become inflamed. This happens because the immune system attacks the inside of the intestines. Inflammatory bowel disease covers two diseases, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's disease.
O
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is a malignant growth of cells in the ovaries. The ovaries are glands that a woman has which produce eggs and hormones.
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P
Precancerous (adenomatous) Polyps
Precancerous (adenomatous) polyps are growths that have cells that look and act differently than normal colon cells. They are likely to become cancerous as they grow.
Polyps
see Colon Polyps
R
Rectum
The rectum is the last 10-15 centimeters of the large intestine or colon. Its purpose is to store fecal matter for awhile so that a person does not have to run to the bathroom for a bowel movement each time stool comes down the colon. The rectum has muscles that close while holding stool in, and muscles that open when a person has a bowel movement to let stool out.
U
Ulcerative Colitis
Ulcerative colitis is inflammation that happens only in the large portion of the intestine (colon).
Urinary Tract Cancer
Urinary tract cancer refers to tumors that develop in the tubes that lead from the kidneys to the bladder.
Uterus
The uterus is the muscular organ where babies develop
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